Physics is often perceived as a challenging subject, but with the right approach, students can score good marks in this subject. Board exams assess not only students’ knowledge but also their understanding, problemsolving skills, and time management abilities. The CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus is extensive, and not all topics carry equal weight in the exam. For the academic year 202425, the CBSE has reinstated the full syllabus and yearend examinations for Class 12 Physics. This syllabus comprises nine units. To prepare effectively, students should gain a thorough understanding of the CBSE physics syllabus for class 12 to familiarise themselves with the question paper pattern and marking scheme. Reviewing the CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus will provide insights into the unit names, chapters within each unit, and the subtopics covered in the board exam. The blog covers this topic extensively. Read to know more.
The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has released the 12th class Physics syllabus for the 20242025 session. This curriculum is designed to emphasise a foundational understanding of Physics concepts, adhering to international standards with the use of SI units, symbols, and nomenclature. It is structured to provide a logical sequence of units and proper placement of concepts to facilitate better learning. The class 12^{th} physics syllabus includes the course structure, content, and typology of questions, allowing students to review and comprehend the full scope of their studies. We have summarised the details about CBSE class 12^{th} physics syllabus:
Board 
Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) 
Subject 
Physics 
Subject Code 
041 
Marks Distribution 
Theory=70 Practical=30 
Total No. of Chapters 
14 
Total No. of Unites 
9 
The CBSE Physics syllabus for class 12 for the 202425 academic session emphasises a strong conceptual understanding of fundamental Physics principles. It is designed to build a solid base in core concepts. The other features include:
CBSE Class 12^{th} Physics syllabus is divided into nine units. The table provided offers a breakdown of each unit, including the chapters covered, the number of periods assigned, and the marks allocated to each chapter. Students may refer to the table for a clearer understanding of the Class XII Physics syllabus structure.
Unit 
Chapters 
No. of Periods 
Marks 
Unit 1 
Electrostatics 
26 
16 
Chapter 1: Electric Charges and Fields 

Chapter 2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance 

Unit 2 
Current Electricity 
18 

Chapter 3: Current Electricity 

Unit 3 
Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism 
25 
17 
Chapter 4: Moving Charges and Magnetism 

Chapter 5: Magnetism and Matter 

Unit 4 
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents 
24 

Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction 

Chapter 7: Alternating Current 

Unit 5 
Electromagnetic Waves 
4 
18 
Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Waves 

Unit 6 
Optics 
30 

Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments 

Chapter 10: Wave Optics 

Unit 7 
Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter 
8 
12 
Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter 

Unit 8 
Atoms and Nuclei 
15 

Chapter–12: Atoms 

Chapter–13: Nuclei 

Unit 9 
Electronic Devices 
10 
7 
Chapter 14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits 


Total 
160 
70 
This unit explores the fundamentals of electrostatics, including electric charges, Coulomb's law, electric fields, and potentials. It discusses the behaviour of electric dipoles, the concept of electric flux, and Gauss's theorem, with applications to various charge distributions. The unit also delves into capacitance, capacitors, and the energy stored in capacitors.
This unit covers the flow of electric current in conductors, Ohm's law, and the relationship between current, drift velocity, and mobility. It discusses resistivity, temperature dependence of resistance, and the behaviour of cells in series and parallel combinations. Kirchhoff's rules and the Wheatstone bridge are also included, focusing on their applications in electric circuits.
This unit deals with the magnetic effects of electric current, including Oersted's experiment, BiotSavart law, and Ampere's law. It covers the force on a moving charge in a magnetic field, the behaviour of currentcarrying conductors, and the concept of a magnetic dipole. The unit also introduces magnetism in materials, discussing para, dia, and ferromagnetic substances.
This unit focuses on electromagnetic induction, including Faraday's laws, Lenz's law, and the concepts of self and mutual induction. It also covers alternating current (AC), discussing peak and RMS values, reactance, impedance, resonance, and power in AC circuits. The working principles of AC generators and transformers are also included.
This unit introduces electromagnetic waves, discussing their characteristics and transverse nature. It covers the electromagnetic spectrum, including radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, Xrays, and gamma rays, along with their basic uses and applications.
This unit covers both ray optics and wave optics. Ray optics includes the laws of reflection and refraction, mirror and lens formulas, and optical instruments like microscopes and telescopes. Wave optics focuses on the wave nature of light, including interference, diffraction, and Young's double slit experiment.
This unit discusses the dual nature of radiation and matter, covering the photoelectric effect, Einstein's photoelectric equation, and the concept of matter waves. It also explores the waveparticle duality of light and the de Broglie hypothesis.
This unit delves into atomic and nuclear physics, including Rutherford's model of the atom, Bohr's model of hydrogen, and the concepts of nuclear force, massenergy relation, and binding energy. It also covers nuclear reactions such as fission and fusion.
This unit introduces semiconductor electronics, discussing energy bands in conductors, semiconductors, and insulators. It covers the behaviour of pn junctions, diodes, and their applications in rectification. The unit also includes an introduction to various semiconductor devices and circuits.
The practical examination will be of a 3 hour duration with a mark allocation of 30 marks in total. The following topics will be covered in the CBSE 12 Class Physics syllabus for practical examinations:
Many students consider Class 12 Physics to be challenging, largely because of the extensive syllabus and numerous derivations in both parts of the NCERT Class 12 Physics book. However, with careful planning and attentive study from the start of the session, students can grasp the subject more effectively and develop an interest in it. An organised and wellstructured study plan is essential for success. To prepare effectively for the CBSE XII Physics syllabus, students should follow these steps:
It is essential for students to begin by thoroughly understanding the syllabus and exam pattern. They should familiarise themselves with the chapters, topics, and weightage assigned to each unit. Creating a study plan that prioritises highmark areas, such as Units I, II, and III (Electrostatics and Current Electricity), which together carry a weightage of 16 marks, is crucial. Special attention should be given to important topics like Gauss's Law and the superposition principle.
Students should develop a realistic timetable that allows for the completion of the syllabus on time, while also leaving adequate days for revision. Allocating more time to challenging topics is important, but they must also ensure regular revision of previously covered material. Studying in focused sessions with short breaks can help prevent burnout and improve retention.
Physics requires a strong grasp of concepts. Students should aim to understand the underlying principles and their applications. Using concept maps, concise notes, and a list of formulas and derivations will reinforce their understanding. Regularly revisiting key concepts is essential for solidifying their foundation.
Consistent practice is key to mastering Physics board exams. Students should solve a variety of problems from textbooks, reference materials, and past exam papers. They should dedicate significant time to numerical problems while also practicing theoretical questions, ensuring a balanced preparation for all types of questions.
Students should use their textbooks, especially NCERT books, reference books, online materials, and class notes to deepen their understanding. However, as exams approach, it is advisable to limit revision and practice to 12 books that they have consistently used throughout the year.
After covering the syllabus, students should practice solving previous year's question papers within the allotted time. This practice will help them gauge the time required for each section and improve their time management skills. It is beneficial to seek feedback from teachers on practice papers to identify areas for improvement.
Discussing concepts and problemsolving strategies with peers and teachers can provide valuable insights. Students should clear any doubts promptly to avoid confusion during the exam. Teachers are valuable resources, and students should take advantage of their expertise.
The CBSE Class 12 Physics syllabus for the 202425 academic year demands a thorough understanding of concepts and exam structure. By focusing on key areas of the CBSE XII Physics syllabus, students can effectively manage their study time and ensure comprehensive preparation. A methodical study plan that includes understanding the syllabus, practicing regularly, and utilising available resources will help students develop a solid grasp of fundamental concepts and problemsolving skills. Emphasising both theoretical knowledge and practical application, as well as seeking guidance when needed, will further support students in achieving their academic goals. Ultimately, with disciplined preparation and a focused approach, students can turn the perceived difficulty of Physics into an opportunity for academic excellence, paving the way for success in their board exams and beyond.
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